Summer wrap-up part 1 (No more blues)

It’s that time of year where working outside is shortened in hours.  And the chill causes your nipples to pierce your shirt.  So much of my work space has been consolidated, but the projects are in full force.  Here’s an overall update and a promise to keep the posts more frequent and a little funnier.

The solar panel succumbed to a nice blast of wind that sent it shattering.  The problem here was the construction more than the wind.  Without fully encapsulating the panels in an epoxy-like substrate they were subject to flex upon impact.  Being silicon-based and 0.2mm thick it doesn’t take much of a jar for them to shatter.  Trying to repair by removing the broken cells proved impossible as more and more kept cracking.  So time to redo:

As I’ve described the gist of how to put this together in a prior post I’ll skip the gruesome details.  The major difference here is that the panels are attached to glass, they’re closer together, and fully encapsulated with a clear-drying epoxy.  This makes them water-tight and gives them much more support.  Basically you can hit the thing and as long as you can’t shatter the glass, which is now also enforced with epoxy, you’re not going to hurt them.  The glass was unnecessary and I’d probably recommend doing it with plexi next time, but the glass was much cheaper.

As a result of the spacing changes and the dimension changes of the cells (4×5 with a single tab line to 3×6 with dual tabs) this panel is 25% smaller but still kicks out the same power of nearly 100 watts.  It has a short circuit voltage of approximately 25v.  This is an awkward voltage for a panel as they’re typically hovering around 12v, however there’s a reason for this.

The final wiring for the panel includes a high-power schottky diode that prevents any reverse voltage from frying the cells if their output dips below the voltage levels of anything they’re charging.  Basically it stops a battery it’s charging from discharging back into the panel once the sun goes away or the battery becomes fully charged.  This drops down the voltage by 0.9v.  The closed circuit voltage also naturally drops slightly leaving me with a little over 23v.  With this voltage I am able to split it into two voltages of 15v and 8v which are then used to charge 12v SLA batteries and sets of 3.65v Li-Ion batteries wired in series.  An interesting note about batteries is that even though they’re labeled with a specific voltage, they only run at that voltage for a specific instant in their discharge cycle.  12v batteries that are run through heavy deep-discharge cycles should be charged to 14.8v and discharged to approximately 11v.  Li-Ions should be charged to 4.2v and considered discharged at 3.2v for maximum life.  The speed of charge and discharge is also important and there’s a whole bunch of other crap that needs to be taken into account to maximize their health.  So I’ve implemented a software-based charger that monitors the batteries and optimizes their output.  So far it’s the only “ultra-smart” solar-based charger I’ve seen in existence.  Maybe it doesn’t even work.  Probably it’s a lot of extra overhead for something that’s not that important.  But I don’t care really, it’s neat.  More on that in future posts.

Also, the panel has to find the sun so it’s mounted to a make-shift rotating tracker that’s made out of scraps of an old desk (nothing greener than re-use):

That’s all for now.

Coming soon:

  • The problem with shade
  • The problem with wheels
  • Closing the feedback loop on CNC milling
  • Green garage gardening greatness
  • Zombie apocalypse weather preparedness
  • Watching the watchers

Yes, those are vague.  You’ll see.

 

 

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